Industrial processes that require grinding, removal and deformation of metal parts also involve the use of coolant–lubricant fluids to meet productivity and quality criteria.
Metalworking fluids have two primary functions: cooling and lubricating.
All metal removal processes produce particularly high amounts of heat due to friction. This heat must be reduced to achieve good productivity and good quality of machined parts. The cooling effect offered by a metalworking fluid ensures a longer life of the cutting tool or grinding wheel and helps prevent burns and smoke.
In addition, metalworking fluids protect both the newly machined workpiece and the machine tool from corrosion. Soluble or emulsifiable fluids (intended to be diluted in water) include components that inhibit corrosion.
Metalworking fluids also promote the removal of chips or swarf (accumulations of fine metallic and abrasive particles) from the cutting zone.